The Crusades

Xàtiva in 2003. Photo by Jan Harenburg

Robert I. Burns and Paul E. Chevedden describe how a much-besieged citadel became the focus for Christian-Muslim co-existence in medieval Spain.

 Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209.

Richard Cavendish marks the anniversary of a great fortress being sacked, on August 15th, 1209.

Jonathan Phillips sees one of the most notorious events in European history as a typical ‘clash of cultures’.

Christopher Tyerman explains why he believes the crusades were important in shaping the ideology and fiscal and political structures of the secular state.

Louis IX on a ship departing from Aigues-Mortes, for the Seventh Crusade.

Simon Lloyd assess the achievements and legacy of France's idealised royal crusader.

 Modern painting of Mehmed II and the Ottoman Army approaching Constantinople with a giant bombard, by Fausto Zonaro

The final moments of Byzantine control of the imperial capital.

Philippe and Richard II

Nigel Saul discusses attempts to revive the crusading zeal in late medieval Europe and explains why they failed to rekindle the fervour of the earlier movement.

What did medieval contemporaries think of military orders such as the Knights Hospitaller and Teutonic Knights? Helen Nicholson investigates.

Jonathan Riley Smith reports as Malta celebrates the anniversary of its Sovereign Military Order

Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont

An idea promoted by Pope Urban II at the end of the 11th century continues to resonate in modern politics. Jonathan Phillips traces the 800-year history of ‘Crusade’ and its power as a concept that shows no sign of diminishing.