A guide to the key moments in the history of the Crusades.
It is widely believed that the Crusades were a clash of civilisations. But a closer examination reveals a complexity that has eluded many historians.
To be a pilgrim - a choice that led not to contemplation but to holy war in the climate of 11th century Europe. Marcus Bull asks why.
Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade, which lasted from 1096 to 1099. Jonathan Phillips examines the origins and motives of the first Crusaders.
The popular image of crusading is derived almost entirely from western accounts of the victorious First Crusade. Yet when historians examine Byzantine sources about the campaign a very different picture emerges, argues Peter Frankopan.
John France recounts the against-the-odds narrative of the capture of the Holy City by the forces of the First Crusade.
Robert Irwin on how Islam saw the Christian invaders.
Outremer, the crusader kingdom, and its capital Jerusalem entered a golden age during the 1130s. Simon Sebag Montefiore portrays its extraordinary cast of kings, queens, conquerors and criminals.
Jonathan Phillips explains how Damascus, ‘Paradise of the Orient’ and a spiritual home for Muslims, became a major battleground of the Second Crusade.
Peter Edbury profiles medieval Christendom's militant apologist.