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Issue 71 December 2011

Jean-Andre Prager demonstrates the wide-ranging impact of Darwinism. This essay was the winner of the Julia Wood Prize for 2011.

Carole Chapman argues that Britain’s refusal to play the role assigned to her by the Führer had a vital impact on Hitler’s strategy.

R. E. Foster explains how law and order were institutionalised in the 16th century.

Richard Wilkinson charts the highs and lows of Winston Churchill in 1940-45.

Mark Rathbone assesses the importance of the office of 'Veep' (VP) over the past 220 years.

Robert Pearce asks why Louis-Philippe's 'July Monarchy' was overthrown.

Carl Peter Watts estimates the importance of the different reasons for British withdrawal.

Michael Mullett shows that key Protestant reformers were influenced by Erasmus's Christian Humanism, as well as by Luther's theology.