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Claudius is proclaimed emperor, by Charles Lebayle, 1886. École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts / Wiki Commons.

Four historians consider the harm caused by those who should have helped their political masters.

Armoured infantry in Athens, April 1967 © Bettmann/Getty Images.

A British public relations company in cahoots with sympathetic MPs was unable to whitewash the military regime that seized power in Greece in 1967.

Detail of a tapestry depicting the Field of Cloth of Gold. Wiki Commons.

When Henry VIII and Francis I met 12 years after the Field of Cloth of Gold – with Henry accompanied by Anne Boleyn – both sought to outdo one another with exquisite items of display.

Henry III with representations of Westminster Abbey and  two church bells, from the ‘Chronicle of England’, by Peter de Langtoft, c.1307-27 © British Library Board/Bridgeman Images.

The complex reign of Henry III, the fourth longest in English history.

Work Safety

The ancient world found ingenious solutions for protective equipment in the workplace – but did its workers benefit?

The Field of the Cloth of Gold, English, c.1545 © Getty Images.

Five hundred years ago, in a spirit of rivalry and cooperation, two young Renaissance monarchs asserted their power and authority at one of the last great demonstrations of the chivalric age.

Birds in a bestiary, 14th-century English manuscript (detail) © Bridgeman Images.

What does it mean to speak gobbledygook, mumbo-jumbo or jargon? Such words are more fraught than the playful games of the Jabberwocky suggest.

Riva degli Schiavoni, Venice,  by Leandro Bassano, late 16th century. Alamy.

Venice developed the most sophisticated intelligence network in Renaissance Europe, securing it from enemies within and without.

Children campaigning in the Bethnal Green by-election, 13 February 1914 © Getty Images.

In the politically chaotic decades before true universal suffrage, some infants found a way to vote in British elections.

Adah Isaacs Menken’s performances  in Mazeppa, 19th century © Bridgeman Images.

Exploring Paris, city of horses.