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A detail from The Garden of Earthly Delights, by Hieronymus Bosch, 1490-1500 © Bridgeman Images

Despite the religious rupture caused by the Reformation, fear of the Apocalypse remained common to both sides of western Christendom. But older, classical ideas of an eternal return were at work, too.

A detail from a ‘balneological’ page from the Voynich Manuscript © akg-images

Despite recent claims, the Voynich Manuscript remains one of history’s biggest mysteries. 

German soldiers look out over Riga’s old town from the tower of St Peter’s Church, 1917 © Bridgeman Images

Events in the Baltic States at the end of the First World War had serious long-term consequences.

Abraham von Kiduna received by the host of a brothel, German woodcut, 1477.

What was life like for medieval prostitutes? A case in the German town of Nördlingen reveals a hellish world of exploitation and violence.

Berliners on the outskirts of Tempelhof Airfield during the airlift, July 1948.

Just two years after victory in the most murderous war in history, the divisions between the Soviet Union and the Western powers became unbridgeable. 

Late 16th century portrait, housed in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

The story of Richard III’s lieutenants, William Catesby, Sir Richard Ratcliffe and Francis, Viscount Lovell, is one of intrigue, death and a mysterious disappearance.

A group of armed Afghans in the Khyber Pass, c.1910.

Against the odds, the Third Anglo-Afghan War led to Afghanistan’s independence.

Pliny the Younger, 19th-century engraving.

What was it like for a Roman to encounter a Christian for the first time? As the Empire reached its greatest extent, Pliny the Younger found himself face-to-face with members of the new religious group.

‘Workers, Citizens, Farmers, Soldiers of all Classes of Germany, Unite in the National Assembly’, poster by Cesar Klein for the elections of January 1919.

‘Politics as a Vocation’, a speech made in 1919 by the German sociologist Max Weber, can lay claim to being one of the most influential political statements of the 20th century. Amid global crisis and uncertainty, it remains as relevant as ever.

Untitled drawing by Nina Jirsikovà, 1941.

Periods are a fact of life, but little talked about. How did women in the concentration camps cope with the private being made public in the most dire and extreme circumstances?