Since the late 19th century, French politics has provided a testing ground for right-wing populism.
‘Concentration camps’ are difficult to define. Even the survivors of the most notorious and universally recognised camps in history discovered this problem in the aftermath of the Second World War.
What do the tyrants of the 20th century have in common? Terror, confusion and quasi-religious followings.
The Third Reich’s obsession with a pure Germanic past led to a renewed interest in the witch hunts of early modern Germany.
The buildings that came out of Portugal’s New State were described as an ‘architectural lie’.
In late 1945, a small self-styled fascist church established itself in southern England, where its members worshipped Adolf Hitler. For the war-weary locals, it was too much: vigilante action was required.
Never fully exorcised, the memory of Italy’s fascist past is fading.
Salò was Mussolini’s German-backed experiment in ‘real Fascism’ and fine living. Italians find it hard to come to terms with its legacy.
Though many writers, film-makers and other artists found it difficult to work in Fascist Italy, modernist architecture flourished under the less than watchful gaze of Mussolini.
Historic attachments to heroic leadership combined with a mastery of propaganda techniques to mesmerise Germany into acceptance of the charismatic authority offered by the Führer.