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View of the Apostolic Palace, from St Peter's Square, Rome. All but five papal conclaves since 1455 have been held here. Photo, Giacomo Brogi, c. 1860-c. 1890. Rijksmuseum.

The cultural politics of papal Rome.

Karl Marx Monument, Chemnitz. Wiki Commons.

Tracing Karl Marx’s Jewish ancestry.

A drunkard stands before his poor family and swears by the Holy Bible. Wood-engraving by J. Johnston, c. 1864, after G. Cruikshank. Wellcome Collection.

A richly textured portrait of the living standards of women and children in Victorian Britain.

Niccolò Machiavelli (detail), by Antonio Maria Crespi Castoldi, 17th century © SZ Photo/Scherl/Bridgeman Images.

Discovering Machiavelli’s talent for losing.

Theodore Roosevelt, c.1903 © New York Public Library/Bridgeman Images.

How presidential images show us that in politics, as in entertainment, appearances matter.

A young person applying makeup, 1927 © SZ Photo/Scherl/Bridgeman Images.

History at the boundaries of gender.  

Nieu Amsterdam, 17th-century Dutch engraving © New York Public Library/Bridgeman Images.

Understanding the power relations that transoceanic settlements and trade opened up.

Otto Wächter with German settlers in Sanok in 1940. Wiki Commons.

The origins of SS General Otto von Wächter’s rise to power.

A visit to Greenwich Hospital: the Painted Hall,  Illustrated London News, 22 April 1865 © Bridgeman Images.

The Painted Hall at Greenwich: how it was commissioned, its narrative and its meaning.

Troop formations from Precetti Militari by Francesco Marzioli, 1670 © akg-images.

The mobilisation of economic, diplomatic and military resources.