Volume 72 Issue 5 May 2022

When Did the Medieval Period End?

As conventional wisdom has it, Europe began to see the light at the end of a dark age sometime around 1500. Four experts try to date the birth of modernity.

Weighing up the Evidence

What does it take to establish a new scientific truth? In the case of heliocentrism, the death of its sceptics. 

Concrete Plans

The architects who adapted to the demands, whims and chicanery of the Stalinist state.

A Worthy Cause?

During the Franco-Prussian War a British wine merchant was imprisoned in Cologne, accused of being a spy. The public clamoured for the government to secure his release, but wartime diplomacy was not so straightforward. 

Gifts for the Nation

Class interest and ostentatious generosity are the hallmarks of elite charity. So, too, is a fixation with posterity. 

Confess Your Sins

In 17th-century Tuscany and Malta some women were able to hold their abusers, members of the clergy, to account.

Moscow’s Divide and Rule

The Ukrainian-Polish border is a symbol of both international solidarity and the continuing threat that xenophobia poses to the European project.