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Jonathan Phillips

An appreciation of the great historian of the Crusades.

A comprehensive account of a compelling and controversial topic, whose bitter legacy resonates to this day. 

Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade, which lasted from 1096 to 1099. Jonathan Phillips examines the origins and motives of the first Crusaders.

The Dome of the Treasury in the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, was built in 789. Photo by Roberta F.

Jonathan Phillips explains how Damascus, ‘Paradise of the Orient’ and a spiritual home for Muslims, became a major battleground of the Second Crusade.

Jonathan Phillips sees one of the most notorious events in European history as a typical ‘clash of cultures’.

Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont

An idea promoted by Pope Urban II at the end of the 11th century continues to resonate in modern politics. Jonathan Phillips traces the 800-year history of ‘Crusade’ and its power as a concept that shows no sign of diminishing.