Rule of Contradictions

Daniel Beer reassesses W. Bruce Lincoln’s 1976 study of Tsar Alexander III’s brief reign, which combined reaction with rapid industrialisation and left a troubling legacy for his successors.

Alexander receiving rural district elders in the yard of Petrovsky Palace in Moscow, by Ilya Repin.W. Bruce Lincoln tackles a central paradox in the reign of Alexander III: political reaction in an era of rapid social and economic modernisation. His reign was brief; a mere 13 years.

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