Volume 63 Issue 9 September 2013

The latest in Rob Murray's series of Alternative History cartoons.

The enduring legacy of the sport’s pioneers.

Why we should take greater account of Waterloo’s aftermath.

France's 'First Peer' was created on September, 6th 1363

The great Olympian was born on September 12th, 1913

Mexico declared its independence on September 13th, 1813.

France's 'First Peer' was created on September, 6th 1363

The great Olympian was born on September 12th, 1913

Mexico declared its independence on September 13th, 1813.

The Oxford by-election of October 1938 became a referendum on the Munich Agreement of the previous month. As such it was watched closely by Roosevelt, Mussolini and Hitler. Christopher Farman describes the event. 

Frank Prochaska has made a remarkable discovery in the personal library of John Stuart Mill. It proves that Mill not only read the works of his American contemporary, Ralph Waldo Emerson, but was surprisingly harsh in his judgement of him. 

Erich B. Anderson describes the fortunate alliance between Julius Caesar and a Roman knight and mercenary, Publius Sittius, who helped the dictator defeat his enemies in Africa once and for all.

The cold but continuing conflict between China and Japan is the subject of sustained attention from scholars, says Jonathan Fenby.

In September 1513 the fourth James Stewart became the last king to die in battle on British soil. Linda Porter argues that his life and achievements deserve a more positive reassessment.

Reaction to the death of André-Ernest-Modeste Grétry far exceeded the fame of the Belgian-born composer during his lifetime. The cult-like status he achieved beyond the grave reflects the power of music in turbulent times and reveals new attitudes to mourning, says James Arnold.  

Roger Hudson tells the story behind a gathering of glamorous movie stars in Washington DC in October 1947.

Owen Matthews revisits two articles, one of them from the earliest days of History Today, on Russia’s American empire.

The cold but continuing conflict between China and Japan is the subject of sustained attention from scholars, says Jonathan Fenby.

Benjamin Wild finds that the Middle Ages is inspiring a number of major designers.

Avi Lifschitz considers the changing meanings of the Enlightenment, both to those who created it and those historians who have since attempted to define it.

The San Paulo Railway, funded with money from the City of London, was one of the engineering marvels of the Victorian age, says David Gelber.

The state of Britain’s historic battlefields often compares poorly with that of other countries. Things are changing, says Julian Humphrys. 

Selina Mills attends a conference on the history of blindness, now a dynamic field of study.

Marseille is the 2013 European Capital of Culture – time to recall the heroics of Varian Fry, a US citizen who lived there during the Second World War. Markus Bauer reports.