Volume 30 Issue 6 June 1980

The Essex County Record Office

Much of the research that has established social history as a serious branch of historical study has been carried out in County Record Offices explains J.A. Sharpe, of which Essex is an outstanding example.

The Jews of Venice

The seventeenth-century Jews regarded Venice as 'the land of promise', where for a few generations they flourished almost free from constraint and prejudice.

Sir Richard Hawkins: Last of a Dynasty

The epic voyage of this Elizabethan adventurer to Peru and his subsequent capture by its Spanish masters inspired Charles Kingsley's Westward Ho! An article by A.L. Rowse. 

Makers of the Twentieth Century: Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the longest-serving American President, has been accused of 'spineless government that betrayed the integrity of American ideals'. S.G.F. Spackman shows us that there are other ways of interpreting his policies.

Two Invasions of Afghanistan

'Monumentally bad diplomacy, worse strategy, chaotic military organisation and inept generalship' - Thomas Tulenko describes how great powers have failed in their attacks on Afghanistan. Penned as Soviet tanks rolled into Kabul in December 1979, the BBC's David Loyn offered his own analysis thirty years later.

The Guano Age in Peru

After gaining its independence from Spain in 1824, Peru experienced a boom as a result of demand for guano as a fertiliser. As John Peter Olinger details, the boom came to an end when it was replaced by nitrate as the preferred fertiliser, and Chile seized Peruvian nitrate deposits in the War of the Pacific from 1879-84.