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W.B. Lincoln

Nicholas I

W. Bruce Lincoln describes how Nicholas exercised a more personal control in state affairs than any other ruler since Peter the Great.

W. Bruce Lincoln describes how the European Revolutions of 1848 alarmed the Russian Government so much, it sent its armies to aid the Habsburgs in Hungary.

W. Bruce Lincoln reflects on how Russian statesman Nikolay Milyutin became a chief architect of great liberal reforms.

W. Bruce Lincoln analyses the artwork that helped bridge the gap seperating revolutionary intellectuals in Russia, from the nation at large.

During the 1850s, writes W. Bruce Lincoln, an intrepid Russian traveller penetrated hitherto almost unknown territory, making large collections of botanical and geographical specimens, and exploring twenty-three difficult mountain passes.

Tsar Alexander III of Russia. Photograph by Sergey Levitsky

The calm and stability of the Tsar in 1881 meant no new dawn for Russia, but an era of Counter-Reform, writes W. Bruce Lincoln.

W. Bruce Lincoln describes how Enlightenment figures and themes drifted gradually westward, to the Russia of Peter the Great.

W. Bruce Lincoln explains how Russian terrorists decided that ‘by the will of the people’ the Tsar Alexander II must be assassinated.

W. Bruce Lincoln finds that, though at first extremely against the visits, Queen Victoria was much impressed by the Russian Emperor’s dignity, civility and grace.