Ancient Egypt

A papyrus leaf from the Book of the Dead of Imenemsauf.

The ancient Egyptian gods of creation and knowledge vanquish the ‘Lord of Chaos’.

Examination of a Mummy - a Priestess of Amun, by Paul Dominique Philippoteaux, French, c.1891. © akg-images/Erich Lessing.

Despite a total lack of evidence, the belief that grains of wheat found in Ancient Egyptian tombs could produce bountiful crops was surprisingly hardy. 

Kate Wiles surveys one of the world's oldest surviving maps, prepared for a quarrying expedition led by Ramesses IV.

Wooden model of a brewing and baking works

Egyptian artisans produced work that continues to amaze millennia later, but they were human and fallible, too, and their work was often far from perfect.

The archaeologist Howard Carter died on March 2nd, 1939.

The army has been a player in the affairs of Egypt for at least 5,000 years, says Tom Holland.

The Death of Cleopatra by Guido Cagnacci, 1658

In the year 30 BC one of the most remarkable women who have ever lived, Cleopatra, the Ptolemaic Queen of Egypt, perished by her own hand.

A scene from the Book of the Dead. Osiris is seated to the right.

S.G.F. Brandon explains how, early in the history of Egyptian religion, Osiris, the slain king, emerged as the classic prototype of the saviour-god, whose death and resurrection assures his worshippers a new life.

The Burning of the Library at Alexandria in 391 AD, an illustration from 'Hutchinsons History of the Nations', c. 1910

Founded by the Macedonian conqueror from whom it took its name, Alexandria became a stronghold of literature and learning, the splendid focus of the Hellenistic world. By E. Badian.

For nearly three hundred years, a Macedonian-Greek dynasty, who proved themselves to be able and adaptable rulers, held sway over the ancient Egyptian kingdom. By E. Badian