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Volume 56 Issue 9 September 2006

Christopher Tyerman explains why he believes the crusades were important in shaping the ideology and fiscal and political structures of the secular state.

Richard Cavendish examines the career of all-round sportsman Charles Burgess Fry who died September 7th, 1956.

September 21st, 1756

Richard Cavendish examines the career of all-round sportsman Charles Burgess Fry who died September 7th, 1956.

Robin Waterfield, author of a new book on the Greek soldier Xenophon, explains how he came to retrace the steps of the soldier’s famous journey to the Black Sea.

The Mauretania was launched on 20 September 1906.

Cartoon historian Mark Bryant looks at the early work of Carl Giles for left-wing publications and traces the origins of his cartoon family.

Ludmilla Jordanova looks at the ways in which scientists presented themselves and their activities to the public through art, and considers how this reflects on the public presentation of history.

Anthony Grafton remembers Theodor Mommsen, the great German historian of the Roman republic and literary giant of his day.

As Battle of Britain Day approaches Brian James has been finding out why some of today’s leading military historians argue that it was not the RAF but the Royal Navy that saved Britain in 1940.

The English triumph at Poitiers in September 1356 was the dramatic culmination of Edward III’s visionary approach to waging war, the consequences of which are still with us today.

Federico Guillermo Lorenz looks at Argentinian memories of the Second World War during and after the Malvinas-Falklands War of 1982.

Charles Freeman visits a city that has been defined by its waterways – and above all, by its bridge.

Deirdre McCloskey describes how Europe after 1600 half escaped the ancient condemnation of economic life.

The beliefs of the man who painted some of the most famous Christian images are shrouded in mystery. Alex Keller coaxes Leonardo da Vinci’s thoughts out of some little-known personal writings.

The controversial decision to uncover the remains of the famous 18th-century castrato Farinelli in Bologna may or may not prove insightful for music historians ... while an exhibition on castrati in London illuminates this exclusive profession for the wider public.

Ruth Boreham outlines the history of the famous publishing dynasty whose archive has been preserved for the nation and is now accessible to all at the National Library of Scotland.

The artist, scientist, botanist, anatomist, engineer, inventor and all-round genius Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) used paper in a unique way.