Volume 55 Issue 10 October 2005

The Mughal emperor died on 25 October 1605.

The Oxford Martyrs were killed on October 16th, 1555.

Ray Laurence considers how children were seen in ancient Rome and looks at some of the harsher aspects of childhood – sickness, violence and endless work.

The exhibition that opened in Paris, on October 15th, 1905, 'shocked many who saw, and many more who did not.'

Nigel Falls describes how France became caught up in an unexpectedly complicated imperial adventure in 1830.

Geoffrey Best considers Winston Churchill’s growing alarm about the possibility of nuclear war, and his efforts to ensure that its horrors never happened.

Kenneth Baker looks at the foibles and achievements of one of Britain’s most controversial monarchs through the eyes of his caricaturists.

In the twenty-eighth and final essay in this series, Daniel Snowman meets John Morrill, historian of the Civil War, Oliver Cromwell and the recurrent political instability of the ‘Atlantic Archipelago’.

Peter Morton reminds us that, a century before Adrian Mole, there was Charles Pooter.

Diplomat and traveller Hugh Leach draws on his experience of working with Arab tribes to examine T.E. Lawrence’s strategy in the Arab revolt, in anticipation of a new exhibition at the Imperial War Museum.

Sarah Minney, a genealogist-researcher, solves the mystery of the later life of a famous black beauty of the late 18th century.

Richard Cust reassesses the thinking behind the biggest military blunder of the English Civil War, Charles I’s decision to fight the New Model Army at Naseby in June 1645.

Patrick Vernon discusses depictions of Blacks in Victorian art and popular culture, and introduces a new exhibition on the subject, opening in Manchester.