Volume 49 Issue 4 April 1999

The Hungarian Diet issued its manifesto for independence on 14 April 1849.

The early life of Oliver Cromwell, who was born on 25 April 1599.

John Sullivan charts the fortunes of the radical Basque nationalist movement in its attempts to gain independence from Spain.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was founded on April 4th, 1949.

Beginning our new series on the history and development of policing, Clive Emsley sets the scene with a broad discussion of the origins and issues of early policing in Continental Europe.

Vladimir Batyuk describes how the Gorbachev reforms, and the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and Soviet Union, changed Moscow’s view of the world.

Denis Judd questions the role of Empire in defining Britain’s identity in relation to Europe and the rest of the world.

Robert Garland investigates the ancient origins of the calendar and time-keeping systems of the Western world.

Britain's relationship with the sea presented at the re-opened National Maritime Museum.

News of an exhibition of wall-painting that will travel around the country.

Douglas Johnson reconsiders the circumstances in which de Gaulle relinquished his position as President of France and his mythic legacy in French history.

Alfio Bernabei discovers evidence of a plot to kill the Italian dictator in the early 1930s.