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Issue 33 March 1999

Ronald Kowalski and Dilwyn Porter place a famous series of football matches into the context of sports history, politics and international relations.

Eric Evans not only updates us on the latest research on Chartism but recommends how to avoid examination pitfalls.

Stewart MacDonald asks a key question of the wars which dominated the history of Europe in the First half of the Sixteenth Century.

Peter Clements explains that addressing the question directly is the key to securing good grades.

Giuliano de' Medici (left) and Lorenzo de' Medici. Portraits by Botticelli and an unknown artist

Robert Hole examines the often misunderstood careers of Lorenzo the Magnificent and his brother Giuliano, whose power in Renaissance Florence was wielded with great subtlety and skill.

Michael Hutchings argues that for too long Protestant historians have concentrated on the negative aspects of the era of ‘Bloody Mary' and that, in sharp contrast, there are positive achievements to her credit.

It is often said that the 'ifs of history' are fascinating but fruitless. Here, Rob Stradling shows that a counter-factual consideration of what might have happened allows us new insights into the significance of what did happen.

In reviewing the career of one of the key figures in modern Russian history, Michael Lynch rejects the notion that Trotsky would have been a more humane leader than Stalin.