Issue 22 September 1995

Richard Wilkinson wonders why historians have accepted the Cardinal's extravagant assessment of himself.

T.C.W. Blanning argues that royalty in France undermined itself through mismanagement, despotism and sleaze.

Lois Banner looks at coded messages of gender, sexuality and domination that preceded baggy trousers.

Omer Bartov asks how the armies of lords and kings became the forces of peoples and nations.

Martin Daunton argues that Labour's commitment to public ownership owed little to socialism and more to circumstances at the end of the First World War.

We eavesdrop on Ian Dawson as he interrogates the sources and wonders whether the first Tudor was really so mysterious.

Graham Darby looks at why things happen, and argues that short-term causes are paramount.  

David Welch attributes the Nazi leader's electoral success to much more than slick propaganda.

Peter Riddick looks at the way oral history can add another perspective to our understanding of situations and events.