Spain

Alan Haynes describes a gallant mercantile endeavour in Tudor relations with Spain.

Unlike the British Empire, the vast realms of Philip II owed much to the Church.

From 1478 a new ‘Inquisition’ against Christian ‘heresy’ spread throughout Spain and its overseas possessions in Europe (Sicily) and America. It...

Only in Spain did Anarchism become a true mass movement, sinking deep roots into the world of industrial labour and rural poverty. During the Spanish Civil War, writes George Woodcock, its great trade union, the CNT, had a membership of two million workers.

For five years, writes Owen S. Connolly, Jnr., in the face of Allied intervention, Napoleon's talented and amiable older brother attempted to govern the Spanish people.

During the American War of Independence, writes T.H. McGuffie, Gibraltar was saved by an intrepid Commander from Franco-Spanish conquest.

Louis C. Kleber writes how Florida was ceded to Britain in 1763; retroceded to Spain after the American Revolution, and acquired by the United States in 1819.

In 1513 the Spaniards reached Florida; Louis C. Kleber describes how fifty years later the French followed them.

In 1572, writes S.F.C. Moore, Brill was the scene of a dramatic action in the Dutch revolt against the rule of Spain.

On both sides, writes David Mitchell, during three years of conflict, political passions ran high.