Volume 67 Issue 2 February 2017

February 12th, 1817

The earliest surviving written evidence of a Romance language, the Oaths of Strasbourg were sworn on February 14th, 842.

The dead, white, male canon has not merely stifled African-American history so much as smothered it. One author has spent her career grappling with the problem of America’s whitewashed past, writes Alexander Lee.

The meaning of revolution is ever-changing. David Armitage shows how events in recent history have caused a revolution in the meaning of revolution. 

A look at John Ogilby's Britannia road atlas of 1675.

Motivated by power and prestige, Europeans have long sought a route through the Arctic Ocean connecting the Atlantic with the Pacific. Despite many failures, the lure of the frozen north has enjoyed remarkable longevity. Philip Hatfield considers why. 

The Italian Social Republic, or Salò, was Mussolini’s German-backed experiment in ‘real Fascism’ and fine living. As Richard Bosworth explains, Italians find it hard to come to terms with its legacy.

While modern vegetarianism is concerned largely with issues of animal welfare, its roots are to be found in the desire to promote spirituality by curbing humanity’s excessive appetites, argues Erica Fudge.

Turkey has a long history of coups, but a failed attempt on the life of President Kemal Atatürk in 1926 had a lasting impact on the country. Stefan Ihrig reveals how one foreign journalist recorded the reprisals that followed with admiration – which soon turned to fear.

Behind the traditional story of archaeology, with its pith-helmeted Victorian gentlemen, are the equally important yet neglected stories of its female pioneers. Brenna Hassett shows how their lives are vital to the future of the discipline.

A recently discovered 17th-century shipwreck has caused speculation among experts. Richard Blakemore considers the often overlooked importance of maritime affairs on the course of the Civil Wars. 

Vietnamese national identity has been forged in opposition to foreign invaders. But while a united Vietnam is a recent development, writes Christopher Goscha, the country has long been coloniser as well as colonised.

Communist Romania's biggest concession to the west's Dracula obsession. 

Rather than being narcissistic, images of the self were used to represent a spiritual community.

In the intellectual community of Berlin, Saul Ascher was committed to the reform of Judaism.

Volunteer rationing in the First World War depended on patriotism, but that could only go so far.

Attempts to control the spread of bank note forgery in India have proven ineffective and dangerous.

The world does not influence Britain’s native culture, the world is its culture, as anyone with a grasp of the country’s history will understand, argues Suzannah Lipscomb.

Within two generations coal merchants, who used to be everywhere in London, have disappeared from our streets and, along with them, both the smoke...

Rome may be known as the City of Seven Hills, but the average ancient Roman would have been hard pressed to name them. In fact, the city has more...

The election of Donald Trump as President of the United States has stimulated further interest in the presidency of Ronald Reagan. In a book...

The Netherlands of the 17th century was in every aspect a most remarkable country: having successfully shaken off Spanish rule in the name of...

How was a small community on the banks of the Tiber able to rise to dominate the Mediterranean world? Further, how did it secure the continuity of...