Volume 52 Issue 11 November 2002

As Gibraltar conducts a referendum on its future, Martin Murphy shows the degree to which its status was determined by rivalries between the 18th-century Great Powers.

Pope Boniface VIII issued the papal bull Unam Sanctam, the most famous papal document of the Middle Ages, on November 18th, 1302.

Anubha Charan reports on the latest findings from the Gulf of Cambay.

William Clennell celebrates the 400th anniversary of Oxford's Bodleian Library.

Austin Woolrych reflects on how historians’ approaches to the events of 1640-60 have been changing over the half century that he has been working on the period.

King Æthelred ordered the massacre of Danes in England on November 13th, 1002.

Judith Knelman uses correspondence columns to illuminate changing views on marriage in the second half of the nineteenth century.

Colin Jones discusses the art and artifice of the leading mistress of Louis XV.

Taylor Downing recalls the BBC series The Great War.

Peter Furtado highlights the recent achievement of historian Anthony Grafton.

Andrew Cook relates the story of Sidney Reilly - the inspiration behind James Bond.

Historians have famously been divided into parachutists and truffle-hunters. M.R.D. Foot explains how he began his careeer as a real parachutist in the SAS.

Twelve years after the first stone of the new building was laid, the state opening of the new Houses of Parliament took place on November 11th, 1852.

Louise Curth, Gareth Shaw and Andrew Alexander explain how the British supermarket was born.

John Klier reviews Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn’s recent venture into the history of his native country.

Michael Rosenthal and Martin Myrone look beyond the traditional view of Gainsborough and argue for a view of the painter beyond that of society portraitist, as a modernist responding to the broader themes of his times.

As the Museum of London launches its new Prehistory Gallery, its recently appointed Director, Jack Lohman, gives us his perspective on the challenges of bringing the distant past to life. Mr Lohman, a born Londoner, joined the Museum in August, moving from South Africa where he was responsible for developing a common vision for the country’s fifteen national museums.

Jonathan Wright looks at the career of the statesman who might have steered Germany safely through the Weimar era.

T.A. Jenkins discusses the political career of the Iron Duke.