Volume 51 Issue 12 December 2001

Thomas Fleming's comments on the many calls for 'unconditional surrender'.

Curator Alex Werner marks the 25th anniversary of the Museum of London

Richard Cavendish explains how the Kingdom of Libya was established on December 24th, 1951.

Joseph Rykwert considers what has led people through the ages to make collections, sometimes of the most unlikely objects, and discusses the value of their activities in the latest article in our series on Picturing History.

Stephen Halliday investigates the murky world of financing the London Underground.

Christopher Wilk presents the new galleries presenting the history of design in Britain

Christine Lalumia sees the 1840s as the key moment in the creation of the modern celebration of Christmas.

Glen Jeansonne and David Luhrrsen on Gerald L.K. Smith, orator of the far right

Bruce Collins considers the mixture of adventurism, disaster, and lethal reprisal that marked British activities in Afghanistan under Victoria

John Styles marks the opening of the new British Galleries at the V&A with a look at influences and innovations during a dynamic period of design history.

Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones explains the historical roots of the arguments surrounding the CIA following their failure to anticipate the attacks of September 11th.

Geoffrey Regan explains how the experience of boredom in the classroom set him off into a career as inspirational teacher, writer and broadcaster

The 'puffing devil', the first passenger-carrying vehicle powered by steam, made its debut on a road outside Redruth in Cornwall on December 24th, 1801.

Simon Hall and John Haywood on the publication of a new atlas which fills an unexpected gap in the market

Lord George Gordon was born on December 26th, 1751.