Volume 50 Issue 9 September 2000

California became the thirty-first state of the United States on September 9th, 1850.

Luke S.K. Kwong tells the story of the American artist who was invited to paint the portrait of the celebrated Empress Dowager of China after the Boxer Rising.

Taylor Downing and Andrew Johnston seek the truth behind the legend of the Spitfire.

Patricia Cleveland-Peck on the part played by a French cafe in the Sussex Network operations during the Second World War.

Napoleon's forces surrendered to the British in Malta on September 5th, 1800.

Peter Furtado announces recent awards for historical writing.

John Miller describes the state of the British kingdoms as James Stewart waits to become monarch of the entire archipelago.

Marion Shoard describes the centuries-long battle waged by Britons for the right to roam over the hills and vales of their island.

Finland's longest-serving president was born on September 3rd, 1900.

Peter Furtado reviews the latest work on the Turin Shroud.

Richard Willis describes the long struggle to get teachers their own professional organisation.

Larry Gragg describes the earthquake that shattered Jamaica in 1692, and reviews the complex lessons that preachers drew from it.

David Gaimster reveals the origins and contents of the British Museum's Secretum, a hidden repository of artefacts deemed pornographic and unfit for public gaze by Victorian curators.

Henrietta Harrison sees the Boxer Movement through the eyes of an ordinary Chinese man.

Barry Cunliffe tells how, aged nine, his first encounter with Roman remains in a Somerset field determined his ambition to become an archaeologist.

This impressive biography builds on Robert Service’s trilogy, Lenin: A Political Life, which offered a thoroughgoing reassessment of the connections between Lenin’s ideas and activities as Marxist revolutionary and founder of the world’s first Communist state. The focus of this volume is on Lenin the man. It draws on a wealth of new material to provide a subtle and complex portrait of a man who is, too often, either deified as omniscient revolutionary saint, or demonized as bloodthirsty megalomaniac.

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