Volume 50 Issue 12 December 2000

A reflection of the life and work of the leading historian of British railways, who died in September 2000

Joseph Needham, one of the twentieth century’s most remarkable scholars, was born on December 9th, 1900.

Simon Thurley, Director of the Museum of London, describes the discovery at the bottom of his garden that changed his life.

The most gifted, vivid and extraordinary of the medieval Holy Roman Emperors died on December 13th, 1250.

The brilliant inventor and engineer William George Armstrong died on December 27th, 1900, aged ninety.

Tony Aldous looks at a new history of British theatres

Alistair Bonnett identifies the ingredients that produced an 'identity crisis' for white people in the early 20th century. 

Colin Spencer introduces the new Cambridge World History of Food

The ancient town of Zeugma, now flooded by the damned Euphrates

Martin Johnes and Iain McLean examine the political aftermath of the Aberfan disaster.

Charles Maechling argues that the Japanese attack, which took place on December 7th 1941, was partly a response to the country's limited energy resources.

Eric Ives looks at the cases of two English monarchs who broke with convention by selecting spouses for reasons of the heart, rather than political convenience.

Asa Briggs completes our Portrait of Britain series with a survey of the islands at the beginning of the 20th century.

Richard Hodges reviews the evidence for long-distance trade in his empire.

Roman Golicz explores relations between Britain and France under Pam's 'liberal' foreign policy during the Second Empire.