Norman

The Normans in Byzantium

Spreading east in the 11th century, the Normans soon became a feared part of the Byzantine army, but a mercenary’s loyalty is always to his paymaster, as the empire would soon discover. 

The Lost Generations

Age matters; events are experienced differently by young and old, but how do we find those differences in history?

The Other Invasion

The Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in 1167 sowed the seeds for centuries of tension between England and the Irish.

The Harrying of the North

Victory at the Battle of Hastings did not guarantee William control of England. The rebellious North had to be brought into line, which it was, ruthlessly, in the winter of 1069. 

Chronicles of the Conquered

Two conquests of England in quick succession led to a period of shifting identities and allegiances. Courtnay Konshuh and Ryan Lavelle explore how those on the losing side of history tried to forge a place in a new world under new lords.

Valiant Losers

Contrary to the cliché, history is not only written by the victors. Katherine Weikert explains how those chronicling the 11th-century conquests in England and Scandinavia tried to rehabilitate the reputations of the vanquished.

William the Conqueror Reassessed

In the popular imagination, William the Conqueror is, without doubt, the villain, yet the sources we have for his life are ambivalent. Marc Morris revisits the evidence to show the man behind the mythology: neither good nor bad, but complex and human.