Poland

The End of a Nation

Wedged between Russia, Prussia and Austria, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth faced extinction in the 18th century.

Napoleon’s Polish Aide-de-Camp

After early service in Poland, writes Adam Zamoyski, Sulkowski joined the French Army of Italy and in 1798 met a gallant death in Egypt.

The Partitions of Poland, Part II

In 1772 partition had been declared imperative as the only means of saving Poland from anarchy; twenty-one years later, she was punished with partition for having tried to set her house in order. Here was tragic mockery indeed, writes L.R. Lewitter.

The Partitions of Poland, Part I

Except for the decades between the First and Second World Wars, the Polish people, since the end of the eighteenth century, have always been subjected to some form of foreign domination. Thrice Poland was partitioned by aggressive neighbouring sovereigns, and her promising renaissance after 1772 came to nothing. L.R. Lewitter queries the factors that have determined Poland's tragic destiny.