Volume 21 Issue 8 August 1971

The Ku Klux Klan

The ‘invisible empire’ of the Klan, writes Louis C. Kleber, was the answering organization in the Southern states to the Radical regimes imposed by the victorious North.


William Gardener describes how, since the first century A.D. rhubarb was known to the Romans as a panacea for internal ailments, and imported from China.

Guelf and Ghibelline in Italy

Peter Partner describes how resentment against the exile of the Papacy in Avignon led to the ‘War of the Eight Saints’ in 1375 by the ‘Guelf’ cities of Italy.

Patronage in the Reign of Elizabeth I

Howard Shaw describes how, during the reign of the Virgin Queen, offices, wardships, pensions, leases, monopolies and titles of honour were distributed to the servants of the Crown.

Edward II and his Minions

Harold F. Hutchison describes how the tastes and affections of King Edward II were disgusting to the medieval orthodoxy of monks and barons.


In the year 30 BC one of the most remarkable women who have ever lived, Cleopatra, the Ptolemaic Queen of Egypt, perished by her own hand.