Elka Schrijver describes how the peace of Westphalia in 1648 marked the close of the Thirty Years’ War and the dawn of a new era for Europe.
Thirty Years War
Peter H. Wilson unravels one of the most notoriously bloody and complex conflicts in European history to answer the question.
Graham Darby examines the nature and effects of the war that dominated the first half of the 17th century.
On 24 October 1648, the Treaty of Westphalia was signed, marking the end of the Thirty Years' War.
Geoffrey Parker travels to Germany to revisit the sites of the 17th-century conflict that saw the decline of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburgs.
Geoffrey Parker examines the historiography of the Thirty Years' War.