R.J.B. Bosworth

A Century of Fascism

Fascism would plague the 20th century, but when Benito Mussolini seized power in October 1922 few could agree on exactly what it was.

Crimes in Africa

Italy’s imperial record of murder and looting, fire and devastation in Ethiopia.

The Addis Ababa Massacre

Italy's conquest of Addis Ababa was hailed an imperial triumph by Mussolini, though most Ethiopians had only bows and arrows with which to defend themselves.