Richard Vinen

The Victoria Cross

As  the 150th anniversary of the Victoria Cross is celebrated, Richard Vinen looks beyond the individual acts of heroism that have merited the honour, to the wider social, cultural and historical significance of  the medal.

Papon in Perspective

Richard Vinen questions whether the recently convicted Maurice Papon was charged with the correct crime.

Vichy: Petain's Hollow Crown

Richard Vinen describes how personal respect and wish-fulfilment, aided by tireless hagiography, moulded a head of state for a defeated France whose prospectus was fatally flawed.