Iris Macfarlane

Pepper Politics

Iris Macfarlane describes how the Malabar coast in western India was the earliest scene of European sea-borne trade.

The Insecure World of Oliver Heywood

The English seventeenth century was an Age of Anxiety; Iris Macfarlane describes how Oliver Heywood and other devout spirits sought refuge in religious faith.

Akbar and the Jesuits

Iris Macfarlane assesses how Christian missions from Goa operated at the Mughal Emperor’s court.

The Emperor Babur and Vasco da Gama

Iris Macfarlane describes how, during the early sixteenth century, two dominant cultures, Mughal and European, first began to spread on Indian soil.