Irene Brown

Plekhanov and the Iron Law of History

Plekhanov refused to accept that Lenin's coup in October 1917 was a Marxist revolution. To him it was an anti-Marxist revolution that violated history's economic laws. By Irene Coltman Brown.

Acton, Conscience and the Modern Nation

Irene Coltman Brown argues that Lord Acton foresaw that the course of modern nationalism, no longer subject to moral law, 'will be marked with material as well as moral ruin'.

Tocqueville, Democracy and Revolution

Irene Coltman Brown provides an insight into Tocqueville, who, reflecting on the history of revolutionary France, thought that liberty alone was capable of struggling successfully against revolution.

Ibn Khaldun and the Revelation From the Desert

'The entire world is trifling and futile' wrote Ibn Khaldun, the medieval Muslim to whom history taught the fragility of political power and the recurrent cycle of achievement and decline within the social order.