E. Badian

Ancient Alexandria

Founded by the Macedonian conqueror from whom it took its name, Alexandria became a stronghold of literature and learning, the splendid focus of the Hellenistic world. By E. Badian.

Egypt under the Ptolemies

For nearly three hundred years, a Macedonian-Greek dynasty, who proved themselves to be able and adaptable rulers, held sway over the ancient Egyptian kingdom. By E. Badian

Cicero: Words and Illusions

E. Badian introduces Cicero, the master of Latin rhetoric, who long strove to preserve the traditional Republican oligarchy, but who perished at the orders of a military triumvirate that came to represent “the reality of power” in Rome.

Antiochus Epiphanes and the Rebirth of Judaea

E. Badian writes that the efforts of Antiochus Epiphanes to Hellenize his dominions led to a revolt in Judaea under the leadership of the Hasmonaean house, known as the Maccabees, who succeeded in re-asserting Jewish law and the Jewish religion in traditional form.