Turkish archers versus Frankish heavy cavalry. The Crusades marked a period of technological breakthroughs in the art of war that would decide the conflict.
It is widely believed that the Crusades were a clash of civilisations. But a closer examination reveals a complexity that has eluded many historians.
The success of the great military order owed much to the charismatic leadership of Herman von Salza, one of the most dynamic individuals of the 13th century.
A key figure in the First Crusade died on July 8th, 1115.
Steven Runciman’s profile of Richard the Lionheart, written at a time of impending crisis in Anglo-Cypriot relations, offers a nuanced and sensitive portrait, writes Minoo Dinshaw.
A comprehensive account of a compelling and controversial topic, whose bitter legacy resonates to this day.
The warrior and tutor-in-arms to the son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine promised his dying charge that he would complete the sacred task of crusading to the Levant. Did he succeed in his mission and fight the forces of Saladin?
To be a pilgrim - a choice that led not to contemplation but to holy war in the climate of 11th century Europe. Marcus Bull asks why.
John Godfrey describes how the capture of Constantinople in 1204 was an unexpected result of the Crusading movement.