Portugal

Palace of Communications: the Lisbon Post Office, known as Palácio das Comunicações, early 1950s.

The buildings that came out of Portugal’s New State were described as an ‘architectural lie’.

City by the sea: a view of Lisbon, 1548, Spanish woodcut.

A readable history of the Portuguese capital emphasises the modern at the expense of the city’s deeper past. 

António de Oliveira Salazar, c.1960.

A contemporary of Hitler, Franco and Mussolini, Salazar is remembered by some of his compatriots as the greatest figure in the nation’s history. Why?

King Sebastian of Portugal, by Cristóvão de Morais, 16th century.

The 16th century was a time of crisis and change for Portugal’s empire.

A Portuguese merchant is greeted by his Indian household, early 16th century.

Poor and small, Portugal was at the edge of late medieval Europe. But its seafarers created the age of ‘globalisation’, which continues to this day.

C.R. Boxer describes how the cultivated Viceroy of Portuguese India, on his way home from Goa, had a costly misadventure in the Indian Ocean.

The Land of Zanj included the coastal regions of the modern colonies of Kenya and Tanganyika. Here, writes C.R. Boxer, the Portuguese, first among Europeans, came into contact with the Arab-African civilization that flourished on the edges of the Indian Ocean.

Portugal's colonial empire was, at the C.R. Boxer wrote this article in 1956, the oldest in the world, with Mozambique as its most prosperous possession.

In 1373, writes Jan Read, King Edward III signed an alliance with Portugal which has lasted ever since.

The last Huguenot to become a Marshal of France, Schomberg died in exile, fighting for William of Orange at the Battle of the Boyne. By C.R. Boxer.