Bitter memories: a German guard on the streets of Gdynia, occupied Poland, September 1939.

A new law exposes the problematic nature of Holocaust remembrance.

After early service in Poland, writes Adam Zamoyski, Sulkowski joined the French Army of Italy and in 1798 met a gallant death in Egypt.

In 1772 partition had been declared imperative as the only means of saving Poland from anarchy; twenty-one years later, she was punished with partition for having tried to set her house in order. Here was tragic mockery indeed, writes L.R. Lewitter.

Adam Zamoyski describes how the Poles under German occupation were experts in subversion.

Except for the decades between the First and Second World Wars, the Polish people, since the end of the eighteenth century, have always been subjected to some form of foreign domination. Thrice Poland was partitioned by aggressive neighbouring sovereigns, and her promising renaissance after 1772 came to nothing. L.R. Lewitter queries the factors that have determined Poland's tragic destiny.

George Woodcock introduces the great rival of Marx and the founder of organised anarchism.

Tadeusz Stachowski writes that it was not so much the material loss suffered at Ostrolenka, as the moral defeat, that broke the spirit of the Polish opposition.

Tadeusz Stachowski explains how revolutionary aspirations of the 1830s travelled east in Europe and precipitated a war between the Tsarist Empire and its province, the Kingdom of Poland.1

The eighteenth-century partitions and nineteenth-century uprisings worsened the livelihood of Jews in Poland, writes Adam Zamoyski.

By the eighteenth century, writes Adam Zamoyski, four fifths of the world's Jews lived in Poland.