In 1772 partition had been declared imperative as the only means of saving Poland from anarchy; twenty-one years later, she was punished with partition for having tried to set her house in order. Here was tragic mockery indeed, writes L.R. Lewitter.
Except for the decades between the First and Second World Wars, the Polish people, since the end of the eighteenth century, have always been subjected to some form of foreign domination. Thrice Poland was partitioned by aggressive neighbouring sovereigns, and her promising renaissance after 1772 came to nothing. L.R. Lewitter queries the factors that have determined Poland's tragic destiny.
Tadeusz Stachowski writes that it was not so much the material loss suffered at Ostrolenka, as the moral defeat, that broke the spirit of the Polish opposition.
Tadeusz Stachowski explains how revolutionary aspirations of the 1830s travelled east in Europe and precipitated a war between the Tsarist Empire and its province, the Kingdom of Poland.1