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Portrait of Toussaint Louverture, chromolithograph by George DeBaptiste, c.1870 © Getty Images.

The hero of the Haitian Revolution’s lonely death in a French prison cell was not an unfortunate tragedy but a cruel story of deliberate destruction.

Pacification with Maroons on the Island of Jamaica, by Agostino Runias (1728-96).

Maroon freedom fighters on two Caribbean islands helped hasten the abolition of slavery.

From slavery, sugar and the worst of western colonialism to reggae and Rastafari.

What did the indigenous people of the Americas think of Columbus?

Nautical chart of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, c.1639.

The Lord Protector’s move on Jamaica transformed Britain’s early empire.

Charted territory: French map of Haiti, 1789

Amid the instability of post-revolutionary Haiti, torn between Britain and France, Henry Christophe rose from lowly roots to become its ruler. Paul Clammer remembers his vital role in shaping a new kingdom.

Simon Harcourt-Smith describes how the Americas were plagued by Yellow Fever, borne by mosquitoes from the seventeenth century until the early twentieth.

In the stormy history of the island of Hispaniola, where Columbus was buried, American intervention has followed upon Spanish, French and British. A survey of the scene since 1492.

During the aftermath of the French Revolution, writes C.E. Hamshere, a prosperous state arose in Haiti under the leadership of a powerful and gifted ruler.

English map of Jamaica, 1600s

Jamaica, writes Morris Cargill, has been a British possession since the times of Cromwell.