Issue 44 December 2002

The editor, Robert Pearce, has kept the best reference books for himself.

Mark Rathbone examines the varied reputation of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland.

Simon Lemieux examines the hard facts about the Inquisition and counters the common caricature.

F.G. Stapleton examines the momentous social and political consequences of Germany's spectacular economic growth.

Mark Rathbone considers why Lord Palmerston was the dominant political leader in Britain from 1855 to 1865.

Robin Evans puts Henry Tudor's victory into Welsh historical perspective.

The essay entitled 'How important was the press in the desacralisation of the French monarchy in 1789?', by Olivia Grant of St Paul's Girls' School, was awarded the Julia Wood Prize out of 136 entries. An edited version appears below; a second award was made to Richard Eschwege of City of London School for an essay on Pope Gregory VII.

Robert Pearce examines the career of the man who was successively trade union leader, Minister of Labour and Foreign Secretary.

John Claydon analyses the increasingly rich profusion of writings on the nature of the Bolshevik Revolution and of subsequent Soviet rule.

Andrew Reekes speaks out in protest at the new A2/AS dispensation.