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Ottoman Empire

Empire built by Anatolian Turkish tribes. It lasted from the 14th century until 1922. The ruling dynasty was established in about 1300 by Osman, who instigated nearly 200 years of expansionary... read more

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Philip Mansel explores the City of the Sultans from 1453 onwards, and finds it characterised by a vibrant multi-culturalism until the Ottoman demise of 1922.

To mark the 400th anniversary of his birth, UNESCO has declared Evliya Çelebi a ‘man of the year’. His Seyahatname, or Book of Travels, is one of the world’s great works of literature. Caroline Finkel celebrates a figure little known in the West.

Volume: 61 Issue: 11 2011

One of the last popes to play a major role in international affairs, Innocent XI defied Louis XIV, the Sun King, and played a decisive part in the defence of Christianity against the spread of Islam under the auspices of the Ottoman empire, as Graham Darby explains.

Volume: 61 Issue: 5 2011

The great trading companies that originated in early modern Europe are often seen as pioneers of western imperialism. The Levant Company was different, argues James Mather.

Volume: 61 Issue: 5 2011

Roger Crowley finds that modern European concerns about Turkey are anticipated in an article by Bernard Lewis, first published in 1953.

Volume: 60 Issue: 2 2010

Between autumn 1855 and spring 1856, the attitude of Britain’s war leaders underwent bewildering change as their determination to bring the war with Russia to a desirable conclusion was buffeted by doubts about the commitment of the French, and fears about the motives of French policy, as Brian James reveals.

Volume: 58 Issue: 3 2008

Christopher J. Walker asks whether the two religions that frequently appear locked in an inevitable clash of civilizations in fact share more than has often been thought.

Volume: 57 Issue: 3 2007

Tony Rothman recalls one of the turning points of early modern history, when a heroic defence prevented the rampant Ottoman forces from gaining a strategic foothold in the central Mediterranean.

Volume: 57 Issue: 1 2007

Robert Johnson puts the decline of a once-great Empire into an international context.

Issue: 52 2005

Matthew Stewart traces the roots of the Greco-Turkish war of 1921-22, and the consequent refugee crisis, to the postwar settlements of 1919-20.

Volume: 54 Issue: 7 2004

Richard Cavendish charts the events leading up to Britain and France's declarations of war on Russia on successive days on March 27th and 28th, 1854.

Volume: 54 Issue: 3 2004

Philip Mansel explores the City of the Sultans from 1453 onwards, and finds it characterised by a vibrant multi-culturalism until the Ottoman demise of 1922.

Volume: 53 Issue: 6 2003

Judith Herrin tells the dramatic story of the final moments of Byzantine control of the imperial capital.

Volume: 53 Issue: 6 2003

Geoffrey Woodward assesses how great an impact the Turks had on sixteenth-century Europe.

Issue: 39 2001

Rhoads Murphey helps us to distinguish between the legendary and the real in the legacy of a great empire-builder.

Issue: 35 1999

Philip Mansel looks at interchange and intrigue in the cross-currents of 18th-century culture between East and West.

Volume: 46 Issue: 8 1996

Iain Fenlon explores how Catholic Europe's great 16th-century sea victory over the Turk was celebrated and propagandised.

Volume: 45 Issue: 9 1995

The defeat of the Ottoman Army outside the gates of Vienna 300 years ago is usually regarded as the beginning of the decline of the Ottoman Empire. But Walter Leitsch ask whether it was such a turning point in the history of Europe?

Volume: 33 Issue: 7 1983

Mia Rodríguez-Salgado looks at the lives and impact of the Christian and Muslim corsairs on the early modern seas.

Volume: 31 Issue: 4 1981

The arrival in 1833 of a Russian fleet signalled Russian control for several years of the Bosporus and of the Turkish Empire, writes Lansing Collins.

Volume: 27 Issue: 10 1977

Lansing Collins describes how, in honour of a previous gift sent in the other direction, Elizabeth I presented Sultan Mohammed III with an elaborate clock, surmounted by singing birds that shook their wings.

Volume: 26 Issue: 9 1976

Anthony Bryer takes a visit to Nicaea; The seat of early Church Councils and, for a while, of the Byzantine Emperors, it has a history stretching from the reign of Alexander the Great to the present day.

Volume: 21 Issue: 1 1971

Anne Kindersley describes ‘a triumph of Good over Evil’; for Serbs it was a physical defeat against the Ottoman Turks, but a moral victory.

Volume: 20 Issue: 5 1970

In the year of Napoleon’s coronation, writes Ann Kindersley, three patriotic Serbs officially asked for the help of the Tsar in their revolt against the Turks.

Volume: 18 Issue: 11 1968

A.D. Lacy describes how, under the leadership of Pierre d’Aubusson, the Knights Hospitallers at Rhodes withstood a ferocious attack by the Turks.

Volume: 18 Issue: 5 1968

On August 19th, 1071, writes Jasper Streater, a Byzantine army was defeated by the Seljuk Turks, and Anatolia was forever lost to Christendom.

Volume: 17 Issue: 4 1967

Eighteenth-century ambassadors to the Sublime Porte found little to admire in Turkey, writes Lavender Cassels, and suffered many humiliations before they reached the Sultan’s presence.

Volume: 15 Issue: 9 1966

Sarah Searight describes how the Levant Company, which had received its first charter from Elizabeth I, did not surrender its monopolistic hold over trade with the Middle East until the reign of George IV.

Volume: 16 Issue: 6 1966

When, on September 8th, 1565, the last Turkish troops had been driven from the island, only six hundred of its original defenders were still capable of bearing arms. But, as T.H. McGuffie writes, the attacking force had lost some twenty-five thousand men; and the Turkish drive westwards was for ever halted.

Volume: 15 Issue: 8 1965

Fresh from his defeat by the Russians, Charles XII, the King of Sweden, and a body of faithful adherents took refuge in the Turkish Empire. Dennis J. McCarthy describes how he he remained there for five years, an increasingly unwelcome guest.

Volume: 15 Issue: 6 1965

Robert Gavin outlines how, just as it was about to become the “Sick Man of Europe”, the Turkish Empire showed surprising vigour in re-imposing its grasp upon Arabia to the dismay of Egypt.

Volume: 13 Issue: 11 1963

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