The defeat of the Ottoman Army outside the gates of Vienna 300 years ago is usually regarded as the beginning of the decline of the Ottoman Empire. But Walter Leitsch ask whether it was such a turning point in the history of Europe?
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In the cynical atmosphere of the Congress of Vienna, Consalvi imposed himself on his fellow statesmen and fought a successful battle for the restoration of the Papal States. E.E.Y. Hales describes a master of European diplomacy.
Published in History Today
Metternich and Benckendorff, who played leading roles on the European scene, first met under very different circumstances; P.S. Squire describes how they were both attached to a charming French actress.
In the summer of 1849, writes Leslie Reade, the Austrian forces besieging Venice decided to put into practice a novel and fantastic plan; and Europe had its first experience of aerial warfare.
David G. Chandler offers a study in fact and fiction about a famous Napoleonic campaign.
David G. Chandler describes how the trouble Napoleon took over the interpretation of events at Marengo shows how deeply they had disturbed him.
Michael Glover describes how Vienna in 1815 was the scene of endless entertainment for European rulers and their delegations.
Stella Musulin describes how, in 1848, even the Austrian capital was stirred by the turmoils of reform.
David Woodward describes insurrection in the Austro-Hungarian fleet on February 1st, 1918.
For over 150 years, writes Christopher Duffy, generations of Irish gentry sought service in the armies of the European powers.
Ross Watson introduces Prince Eugene of Savoy; Marlborough’s companion in arms was not only a great soldier but also one of the most important patrons and collectors of his day; a modest man with a deep love of painting and architecture inspired by a strongly individual taste.
Norman Stone introduces Von Hötzendorf, the last in a long line of Austrian commanders, and not the least able, who had the misfortune to believe that the First World War would save the Empire from disintegration.
Adrian Mourby welcomes the return to public view of the Habsburgs’ esoterica.
Fischer von Erlach flourished in a new era of exhibitionism, Mary Henderson writes, to become the most influential Austrian architect of the Baroque period, shaping the tastes of the Habsburg empire.
Imbued, with the militant spirit of the Counter Reformation, a sixteenth-century Prince Bishop, Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, set out to re-build Salzburg as a Second Rome, as Tudor Edwards here describes.
Bayreuth has much for which to thank Richard Wagner, but the determination of a Prussian princess to create something out of her dull and provincial 18th-century marriage helped make the city the place it is today, says Adrian Mourby.
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