The city surrendered to Afonso I of Portugal and a group of crusaders on 25 October 1147.
The buildings that came out of Portugal’s New State were described as an ‘architectural lie’.
A readable history of the Portuguese capital emphasises the modern at the expense of the city’s deeper past.
A contemporary of Hitler, Franco and Mussolini, Salazar is remembered by some of his compatriots as the greatest figure in the nation’s history. Why?
The 16th century was a time of crisis and change for Portugal’s empire.
Poor and small, Portugal was at the edge of late medieval Europe. But its seafarers created the age of ‘globalisation’, which continues to this day.
C.R. Boxer describes how the cultivated Viceroy of Portuguese India, on his way home from Goa, had a costly misadventure in the Indian Ocean.
In the coastal regions of the modern colonies of Kenya and Tanganyika, the Portuguese, first among Europeans, came into contact with the Arab-African civilization that flourished on the edges of the Indian Ocean.
Portugal's colonial empire was, at the C.R. Boxer wrote this article in 1956, the oldest in the world, with Mozambique as its most prosperous possession.
In 1373, writes Jan Read, King Edward III signed an alliance with Portugal which has lasted ever since.