Volume 38 Issue 5 May 1988

If Parma Had Landed

Felix Barker discusses the little-known civil defence preparations to meet a Spanish invasion and looks at what might have happened.

The Lurch Into War

In May of 1588, Spain's great Armada set sail, bent on the invasion and conquest of Elizabethan England. Simon Adams re-examines the strategic considerations that underpinned the actions of both England and Spain before and after the Armada.

Gauging the Future

Tony Aldous on mid-19th century plans for a railway station in the centre of London.