Volume 31 Issue 7 July 1981

Paine's American Pamphlets

Stuart Andrews shows how Tom Paine not only popularised the idea of American independence but helped to keep the spirit of Union alive through seven years of war.

Sir Charles Napier and the Conquest of Sind

William Seymour argues here that the determination of Sir Charles Napier to uphold British interests in Sind led to coercion and eventual war. Much criticised for his high-handed approach, Napier nevertheless proved an efficient administrator for this conquered land.

Edward Gibbon and The Golden Age of the Antonines

The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire appears to offer a paean to the civilised society of the Antonines. But Gibbon, as A. Lentin reveals, was well aware that it bestowed 'the benefits of order' without the 'blessing of freedom'.