Volume 19 Issue 10 October 1969

The First Vatican Council

K. Theodore Hoppen describes how the victory of the ultramontanes in 1870 meant that for a considerable time the largest Church in Christendom adopted an attitude hostile to the modern world.

Marshal Soult

William Allan introduces the Napoleonic military genius; in Napier’s words, ‘the best loved Frenchman England ever fought’.

Humbert’s Raid on Ireland, 1798

Thomas Pakenham describes the ill-fated but remarkable efforts of a tiny French naval expedition to help conquer Ireland for the rebels during the 1798 Rising.

Hambro and Cavour

J.D. Scott describes how a London banker, of Danish origin, played a large part in financing the unification of Italy.

American Loyalists in Britain

During the American Revolution, writes Wallace Brown, several thousand Loyalists sought refuge in Britain — ‘sad victims’ of events.