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Nicholas Morton

The Siege of Antioch during the First Crusade in 1098, 15th-century manuscript.

Turkish archers versus Frankish heavy cavalry. The Crusades marked a period of technological breakthroughs in the art of war that would decide the conflict.

It is widely believed that the Crusades were a clash of civilisations. But a closer examination reveals a complexity that has eluded many historians.

The success of the great military order owed much to the charismatic leadership of Herman von Salza, one of the most dynamic individuals of the 13th century.

When did the fortunes of war turn against the crusader states? Three historians offer their views.