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Milton Osborne

Portrait of Ho Chi Minh circa 1946.

'Ho, Ho, Ho Chi Minh' was the chant of radicals in the 1960s and 1970s, idolising the Communist leader who led Vietnam's Revolutionary struggle first against French colonialism and then against the United States' involvement in Vietnam. 

Vietnam's expansionism in Indochina during the 1970s had its roots in its pre-colonial past, argues Milton Osborne.