Elka Schrijver

Gerard Ter Borch at Münster

Elka Schrijver describes how the peace of Westphalia in 1648 marked the close of the Thirty Years’ War and the dawn of a new era for Europe.

The Siege of Haarlem

Elka Schrijver describes the dramatic and bloody events of a sixteenth century siege of the Dutch city by a Habsburg army of Philip II.

Luxemburg under the Dutch

After centuries of Habsburg rule, writes Elka Schrijver, the Grand Duchy came under the Orange-Nassau dynasty in 1815 and, in reduced size, is still independent.