E.E.Y. Hales

School History in the Melting Pot

Every generation, writes E.E.Y. Hales, will have to consider afresh the principles of selection and the paths that may be usefully followed.

Giuseppe Mazzini: 1805-1872

E.E.Y. Hales describes Europe's premier revolutionary between the years 1835 and 1860, who was inspired by patriotism, belief in democracy, and lofty religious ideals.

The Tragedy of Success

In the cynical atmosphere of the Congress of Vienna, Consalvi imposed himself on his fellow statesmen and fought a successful battle for the restoration of the Papal States. E.E.Y. Hales describes a master of European diplomacy.

Expelling the Jesuits

Often expelled, the Jesuits have as often returned. The unpopularity they excited was largely due to the power they exercised. How they came to acquire so much influence, writes E.E.Y. Hales, is “certainly one of the enigmas of history”.

The Personality of Pio Nono

E.E.Y. Hales profiles Pope Pius IX (1846-78), who saw the end of the Papacy as a temporal power as the opening of a new era in its world-relationships.