Roman Empire

Pliny the Younger, 19th-century engraving.

What was it like for a Roman to encounter a Christian for the first time? As the Empire reached its greatest extent, Pliny the Younger found himself face-to-face with members of the new religious group.

The struggle for control of the straits dividing Sicily from southern Italy brought the two great empires of the Mediterranean, Carthage and Rome, head to head. It was a world in which ruthless mercenaries prospered.

Sculpture of Agrippina crowning her young son Nero (c. 54–59 AD)

On the women who made imperial Rome.

Raised-relief image of Minerva on a Roman gilt silver bowl, first century BC.

A study of cultish rituals in Roman Britain reveals a cross-fertilisation of religions.

The death of Brutus following the Battle of Philippi, 19th-century engraving.

A meticulously researched, beautifully written biography of Julius Caesar’s high-minded assassin.

Bust of Marcus Tullius Cicero, first century AD

The man who conspired to kill Julius Caesar was not quite the friend to Romans and countrymen that his legendary status suggests. 

Henri Pirenne transformed the way historians think about the end of the Classical world and the beginning of the Middle Ages.

Stele representing the "paiment of taxes", Jaumont limestone, 2nd-3rd century, Metz. Kept in Musées de la Cour d'Or

Dealing with debt in the Roman Empire.

Latin was used throughout the Roman Empire, but it shared space with a host of other languages and dialects, including Greek, Oscan and Etruscan, which give us a unique perspective on the ancient world.

The Roman leader was born 29 September 106 BC.